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por rakila diri (2020-03-11)


In their study, Qian, Cao, and Takeuchi (2013) investigated the relationship between top management team functional diversity and organizational innovation and they determined that this input-process-outcome model is one of the reasons why organizations that adopt diversity management are able to accrue considerable competitive advantages. The findings of the researchers can be considered as being accurate because they engaged in primary research methods where they interviewed the chief executive officers and chief technology officers of 122 Chinese firms. Their study revealed that ‘both competitive and institutional environments in moderating such upper echelon effects within a transition economy’. These are facets that influence the decision that are made by the top level management and in turn influence the performance of the organization. What the study also revealed is that with diversity in the top management, employees with different backgrounds are able to develop feelings of inclusion within the organization and this enhances their optimacy and contribution to the organization (Qian, Cao, & Takeuchi, 2013). It also makes them more loyal to the organization thus reducing turnover.  The research conducted by Qian, Cao, and Takeuchi (2013) can be used to explain why Wal-Mart Chinahas high levels of employee performance and reduced employee turnover in China. The company has a diverse workforce as well as top management team within the Chinese market.

            Chinais a conservative country and for a while the company has been promoting male chauvinism with men making up the majority workforces in almost all organizations with women playing minor roles within the society with their main roles being considered as social family roles of domestic chores and raising children (Nankervis, Warner, Chatterjee, & Cooke, 2013). Nankervis, et al (2013) in their study argue that this is a tradition that is slowly fading with more women gaining formal employment and occupying leadership positions. Wal-Mart’s commitment to equality and promoting of women employment and management is reflecte by its establishment of the “Wal-Mart ChinaWomen’s Leadership Development Commission” in 2009 (Nankervis, Warner, Chatterjee, & Cooke, 2013). The program is specifically aimed at promoting the career development of women in Chinaand enhances their capabilities as leaders within the organization. To foster women development further, Wal-Mart Chinaestablished Women’s Leadership Workshops in 2013 (Walmart, 2015). In its Chinese initiatives, Wal-Mart intends to become a market leader while at the same time stimulating the development of the economy through offering equal employment opportunity and ensuring that women contribute more in the building of the country’s economy (Lichtenstein, 2006).

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